For nearly years the Indonesian Elders have held these notes on behalf of the depositors. The guidance will be formulated in consultation with these stakeholders and published in due course. Much of this growth has been pinpointed to government schemes, such as Funding for Lending and Help to Buy — which will be fully launched next year. A pandemonium broke out in the house over his remarks as a number of MMA members She could not only not accept defeat, but she proved herself willing to wage a scorched Earth policy utilizing Obama holdovers in the DOJ and FBI to wage a treasonous propaganda campaign against Trump that has backfired so violently that it has exposed what most thought to be merely irony and absurdity to actually be the crudest, most cynical and farcical exercise of political and legal self-immolation that could never have been devised by even the most devious and twisted mind. Moreover, it is estimated that over half of the colonists who came to North America from Europe during the colonial period were poor indentured servants, and women were generally trapped in roles of domestic servitude.
Breaking politics news
May 12, · Google announced on Wednesday that it would ban all advertisements for payday loans and related products on its website because they often . Except for the ten to twelve million people who use them every year, just about everybody hates payday loans. DealBook Briefing: What’s Next for CBS Without Les Moonves? The company’s longtime C.E.O. has stepped down over new sexual harassment allegations.
US home refinancing falls to lowest since 2000
The globalists fear will mark the return of the hardcore Donald Trump his voters knew on the campaign trail as he grows more comfortable — and experienced — at being president. Trump is also aided by the fact that Special Counsel Robert Mueller can no longer hide the fact his probe is entirely political.
It could be as simple as fueling an economic collapse they can blame on Trump, a likely scenario given that the central banks are staffed by financiers adept at overriding the economy with a few bad policies Trump has no control over.
Actually, the preceding word picture illustrates the awesome effects when the Internet is optimally leveraged to conduct this type of criminal disclosure campaign.
It used to be that one whistleblower would be standing alone on the firing line after he or she just exposed a major institutional crime or pattern of criminality. As MeToo has shown us, those days are over. That movement grew the legs of a millipede practically overnight because those sexual harassment whistleblowers knew that in unity there is strength; and in great numbers there is great protection. This is exactly how so many women, in particular, felt safe enough to out their abusers beginning with the notorious Harvey Weinstein.
This Internet campaign will utilize the same philosophy and principles that Saul Alinsky promoted in his Bolshevik handbook - Rules for Radicals. The patriot movement is now compelled to fight fire with fire. Efficiently implementing the most applicable MO is absolutely essential to winning this war - the Second American Revolution. The central pillar of this Deep State takedown strategy is to identify and isolate the proven criminal perpetrators. There are many of them, and some are hidden deep in the System.
Their job is to reveal those bad actors who have avoided exposure by virtue of their protected positions in the alphabet soup agencies and departments. They can do this anonymously by tweeting their info under a pen name or by having a distant acquaintance post the data to a Facebook wall. As for the Comeys, Muellers and Wrays, they have already exposed themselves.
Intelligence Community have laid bare their treason. However, they still need to be isolated and taken down on the Internet just like the many accusers took down Harvey Weinstein.
Hopefully the patriots on both the Right and the Left get the picture. In this way, each cyber-warrior needs to become an Internet investigator and prosecutor of sorts. Everyone just saw how the MSM was used to take down Roy Moore with a fictitious sex scandal and transparently fake news. They first identified Moore as a lone duck; even Trump abandoned him.
After methodically isolating him, they went in for the kill. His loss at the polls and in the voting booth was a perfectly controlled demolition by Deep State. Then they proceeded to outright steal the election through voting fraud and vote count tampering.
They attempted this very same game plan against Trump during the campaign season, yes? We the People must go after the guilty politicians of both parties; corrupt government officials at the federal, state and municipal levels; and compromised VIPs who use their wealth, power, influence and public platforms to support the Deep State agenda.
Things really change when the individual agents of Deep State are taken down by being exposed as the hardened criminals think George Soros that they truly are. All of these Deep State operatives are fundamentally enemies of the American people, and they should be treated as such. Therefore, the more these foreign agents are pursued personally for their own crimes and corruption, the easier the war will be won.
The bottom line here is this:. Everyone knows that Congress is thoroughly and hopelessly corrupt. Everybody is aware that the Obama Administration was the most lawless and depraved in U.
We must go after the individual corrupt Congressman with focus and resolve, not Congress. Mass Indictments, Targeted Arrests and Disclosure. We must focus on the specific State Department crimes committed by Hillary Clinton, sex crimes by Bill Clinton, Clinton Foundation crimes by Chelsea Clinton, and especially the unspeakable crimes perpetrated by the Podesta brothers against our children.
TheSleuthJournal Magnetic resonance imaging is a common preventative and diagnostic method used in medicine, and at times this technology can be invaluable. Of course there are some health questions associated with the practice, such as does the practice involve powerful magnetic fields?
Flying Should Come with a Health Warning But for those who require them in case of an emergency, they can be extremely helpful. Besides the minute threat of magnetic frequencies, new concerns over the drugs used to produce clearer images have been shown to leave toxic residue in the brain.
These findings have shown the importance of more stringent health monitoring prior to MRI application. MRIs are typically safer than a CT scan, as they emit little to no radiation during the procedure. The real concern surrounding MRIs, in fact, has nothing to do with the technology at all. Patients are often given injectable drugs that improve the visibility of certain areas in the brain, which can be very useful for discovering health issues that could possibly be missed.
The issue is that these drugs may accumulate gadolinium - a toxic metal - in brain tissue. The medications, known as contrasting agents, sharpens the resulting images; however, it may also be contributing to deleterious effects, many of which have yet to surface in any research.
If you take into consideration the compounds we are exposed to almost every day that are already contributing to brain degeneration i. Ask questions and research any drugs that you are being given, especially if you are having an MRI, and work with your doctor to find safer methods for obtaining your health goals. Singh also revealed that the U. However, it will lead to an increase in calls from the right for Twitter to be regulated as a public utility to ensure that free speech rights are protected given how social media companies like Twitter, Facebook and Google have basically become monopolies.
January 13 From: PaulCraigRoberts Writing in pravdareport. Washington has kept a state of war with North Korea open for 64 years and continues to overthrow governments that have policies independent of Washington. A Shot Across The Bow? David Wilcock is one of a few researchers with insider connections who have reported that North Korea is actually a puppet state of the Rothschild faction of the Cabal.
It's simply the last in a long line of 'Boogeyman' regimes that have been used as justification for various wars and foreign policies that have been - until the advent of Trump - used to bring about the illuminati fascist globalist agenda. Keeping this in mind, the following article reads somewhat interestingly. A Dictator is a transient and temporary figure in the life of a Nation. When power passes from father to son to nephew, we can no longer speak of dictatorship.
In such a case it is more correct to speak of monarchy and ruling dynasty to describe the situation in which the power over a people is administered by the same family, continuously, through the generations.
From this point of view, the current ruler of North Korea is king and not dictator. Kim is therefore a well-established dynasty in North Korea, a bloodline whose male members reign over the country until death and enjoy in the eyes of the common people even a form of deification, thanks to skillful political propaganda and perhaps to a certain inclination of the North Korean soul.
A monarchy needs an aristocratic class that supports it and aids control of the territory. If it is easy to identify the royal family, identifying the elements of the aristocracy can be more complicated. However, we can perhaps find the aristocracy in the managers of the large industrial plants, in state-owned farms; among those responsible for the maintenance of the roads, electric and telecommunications network, and the most prestigious university professors.
Depending on the names and the frequency with which the managers are replaced in their assignments, we could deduce a scheme that helps us to understand something about the internal mechanisms of power and therefore about the structure of the North Korean aristocratic class.
North Korea is no difference from this point of view. If someone asked me then what North Korea is, I would answer that it is a country with a communist economy, governed by a monarchy that is helped in its governance by a political council with representatives of both the armed forces and a noble class of apparatchiks.
The rule of the Kim family is justified by its resistance to the Americans. The end of hostilities on the battlefield in and the creation of the demilitarized zone in the 38th parallel did not lead to the end of the war but to its indefinite suspension thanks to the longest truce in human history: The state of war between the two Koreas and between North Korea and the Western coalition that attacked it still remains today.
Between the parties to the conflict, there is an armistice, not a peace treaty. However, it can be said that Washington did not win the Korean War while North Korea did, at least as long as it continues to exist as a sovereign nation. North Korea suffered immense sufferings during the war. The amount of bombs that the Americans dropped on North Korea was larger than they dropped on the entire Eastern theater of World War II, by their own admission and boast.
The Americans spared nothing and even scattered anthrax on the border between North Korea and China, to hit the herds and starve the populations. However, the Korean people resisted, and they still resist today. That Washington has followed a contrary policy for 64 years suggests that Washington intends to keep the conflict alive.
January 12 From: In the classic work , Orwell describes a tightly controlled future where technocratic elites have stamped out individualism with total information awareness and total surveillance from the home, to the office, to the street. As consumers sheepishly allow smart devices into their homes, real time audio and video of personal space is being uploaded to the web for use by corporations and government.
The encroachment into the home with this two-way monitoring is unsettling, but for years new we have been witnessing the explosion of CCTV cameras on the streets of major cities around the world. Now, couple CCTV cameras with artificial intelligence enhanced facial recognition technology and you have precisely what Orwell warned us of. This is in a city with a whopping Something akin to a credit score showing your loyalty to the state. Take a look at how this system works, then ask yourself if you are ready to submit to living in a world where your every move is tracked and databased by an all-seeing government security apparatus.
When this happens, the global economy will be significantly reshaped, and the West will lose its dominance, predicts a precious metals expert. Gold Moving From the West to the East. The level of trust between BRICS countries can help them establish intragroup gold trading, which would be percent physically backed. According to London gold clearing statistics for , the total trading volume in the London Over-the-Counter OTC gold market is estimated at the equivalent of 1.
On this point the author is uninformed. Neil Keenan and David Wilcock have both exposed the truth on this matter, that in fact the amount of gold that has been mined and that is currently out of the system is many, many times greater that those who are uninformed believe. Further detail on this matter can be found on the following link: The expert believes that with paper gold trading, the established gold exchanges could cease to exist sooner or later.
Gold Versus US Dollar. The analyst recollected the Heartland Theory of Halford Mackinder, a British geostrategist at the beginning of the 20th century who influenced the likes of Kissinger and Brzezinski. Following the theory, we will soon face a war between physical gold and the US dollar. Russia-China real gold standard means end of US dollar dominance.
RT Sixty-three Israeli students signed a letter stating they would defy mandatory military service despite the risk of jail. Blaming the Israeli government and IDF for decades of violent conflict, the students wrote they;. Men serve for two years and eight months, and women for two years. Although such cases are rare, the IDF has previously jailed young conscientious objectors who have refused to serve.
In July, year-old Noa Gur Golan was detained in a military prison for defying her draft orders. Medical freedom threatened in Israel. In a similar incident in , 53 graduates of Jerusalem's Arts and Science Academy signed a letter declaring their refusal to serve in the military. The alumni of the prestigious university wrote that the IDF was a:. The United Nations has repeatedly called on Israel to withdraw from occupied Palestinian territory.
Risen remembers how a top CIA official once told him that:. TheDuran Facebook is handing over more and more data to government than ever before. Facebook is doing exactly what it was designed to do. Aggregate information, and then share that information with the US government.
Since , when the company first started providing data on government requests, the US number has been steadily rising— it has roughly tripled in a period of four years. This is alarming many and causing a concern about privacy. But Joseph thinks Facebook is just trying to pacify the easily manipulated sheeple of society. Whether you like it or not. They are scooping up everything.
And these companies have really gone too far…they can reconstruct your life and make anyone they want a patsy. Smart Meter Radiation Protection Tips There are utility companies who are already making plans to replace hundreds of thousands more. One example is Sara Jerome of Water Online:. For an updated list of where fires and explosions have occurred, visit emfsafetynetwork.
Meter collectors and repeaters also have batteries. Pacific Gas and Electric Co. Officials at the Public Service Company of Oklahoma say they will replace around 25, smart meters in the Tulsa metro area. Meanwhile in Naperville, IL in 24 hours the verdict changed on the cost effectiveness of smart water meters:.
March 1, in Arizona: After LADWP installed the PricewaterhouseCoopers designed billing system, customers almost immediately began finding bogus fees and overcharges on their utility bills. Not So Smart Technology: Gas usage remained the same but electricity usage doubled. June , New Orleans. The association has members.
Author is actually referring to AMR electric meters; analog meters would not transmit data at all. Please see comment below from Catherine Frompovich for further explanation — Ed. Look at the elections that have been held in Europe over the last few months. And I think that this process will intensify. Usually we quickly recover from our heartache and grief, and are able to move forward. Yet, there are times when we feel stuck to our past, feeling so upset and miserable that hurting back those who hurt us seems to be the only way to ease our pain.
The belief that revenge is sweet is constantly reinforced by our culture. Contrary to what those fictional scenarios may depict, the reality is that revenge is counterproductive - that is, instead of making you feel better, it only leads you to experience further pain. Firstly, seeking revenge is detrimental to your well-being. Lastly, many of those you take revenge on will likely want to revenge back on you for revenging on them!
Revenge is nothing but a quick fix - initially, it might indeed feel sweet for a short while, but soon we come to experience its bitter aftertaste.
To never commit them again. So why do some people intentionally hurt other people? The Trap Of Romantic Love. Seen this way, revenge is an attempt to attribute responsibility to those in a position of vulnerability.
It is common for us to despise or even hate those who mistreat us, as well as put all blame on them for their actions, being unable to see that they are victims of tremendous hardship, and that it must be extremely hard to heal from their emotional wounds.
And, instead of showing them compassion for their misfortune, we punish them for their misconduct. In other words, we urge them to become more hostile and abusive, which is the very opposite of what we wanted to achieve in the first place - peace and justice.
Forgiveness means to let go of your hatred toward those who caused you pain and compassionately release the desire to punish them. So how can one learn to forgive? To forgive, you need to realize that all people, including you, are imperfect and hence are bound to make mistakes from time to time, which sometimes affect other people. In such a psychological state, your thoughts become unkind and destructive, and your heart has no space for forgiveness. In other words, to forgive does not mean to condone the misdeeds of another.
Stay away from such people, defend yourself if needed, and make sure they never mistreat you again. However, from a safe distance, forgive them for their mistakes and wish them well in the future. I would like to end this article with one of my favorite short stories that is carrying an immensely beautiful lesson on compassion and forgiveness whether the story is based on historical facts is disputed; regardless, the message it conveys is profound.
So here it is:. We cannot tolerate it. He has to be punished for it, otherwise everybody will start doing things like this! He has not offended me, but you are offending me. He is new, a stranger. He must have heard from people something about me, that this man is an atheist, a dangerous man who is throwing people off their track, a revolutionary, a corrupter.
And he may have formed some idea, a notion of me. He has not spit on me, he has spit on his notion. He has spit on his idea of me because he does not know me at all, so how can he spit on me?
I am not part of it, and I can see that this poor man must have something else to say because this is a way of saying something. Spitting is a way of saying something. There are moments when you feel that language is impotent: There are intense moments when language is impotent. Then you have to do something. When you are angry, intensely angry, you hit the person, you spit on him, you are saying something.
I can understand him. The man was even more puzzled! Puzzled, confused, the man returned home. He could not sleep the whole night. When you see a Buddha, it is difficult, impossible to sleep anymore the way you used to sleep before.
Again and again he was haunted by the experience. He could not explain it to himself, what had happened. He was trembling all over, sweating and soaking the sheets. He had never come across such a man; the Buddha had shattered his whole mind and his whole pattern, his whole past. The next morning he went back. This, too, is a way of saying something that cannot be said in language. When you come and touch my feet, you are saying something that cannot be said ordinarily, for which all words are too narrow; it cannot be contained in them.
This man is a man of deep emotions. But I am not the same man to whom you did it. The Ganges goes on flowing, it is never the same Ganges again. Every man is a river. The man you spit upon is no longer here. I look just like him, but I am not the same, much has happened in these twenty-four hours! The river has flowed so much. So I cannot forgive you because I have no grudge against you. I can see you are not the same man who came yesterday because that man was angry and he spit, whereas you are bowing at my feet, touching my feet.
How can you be the same man? You are not the same man, so let us forget about it. Those two people, the man who spit and the man on whom he spit, both are no more. Let us talk of something else. The FBI source documents make clear the FBI had evidence suggesting Clinton had committed criminal violations of national security laws regarding her transmitting of State Department classified information over her unsecured private email server in July — a year and a half before the Nov.
That memo, dated Aug. Clinton, Part 4, pp. Clinton from potentially criminal mishandling of classified information. Further into the memo, there is a discussion of Patrick F. Clinton if made public as a document made secret by a national security classification. The memo also suggests that Patrick F. Clinton, Part 4, pages The next paragraph makes clear that Kennedy met a stone wall in his attempt to recruit the FBI into his cover-up scheme.
An FBI report made public in Aug. Among the cache of Blumenthal emails to Clinton release by Wikileaks is an email sent by Blumenthal to Sec. A consequence of the strategy was the emergence of ISIS out of the loosely coordinated Free Syrian Army coalition as well as the disastrous Benghazi attack in which a U.
The Obama administration apparently was hoping to replicate the regime-change strategy in which it armed al-Qaida-affiliated militia in Libya, including Ansar al-Sharia, the group responsible for the Sept. Lesch argued a strategy of regime change could be effected in Syria if the U. So I say step up the efforts, already quietly ongoing, to get weapons to the Free Syrian Army. The Controversy Over David Kendell. In May , a senior State Department official informed Clinton lawyer, David Kendell, that government reviewers had found at least one classified email among the emails Clinton transmitted over her private email system she used as Secretary of State.
Ambassador to Libya, Chris Stevens. Clinton had in his possession a thumb drive containing Clinton State Department emails that Kendell may not have secured properly to prevent public disclosure of national security classified information. Clinton faces questions about her use of a personal email server as secretary of state, no one is surprised she turned to Mr.
Did Trump Signal Defeat of Soros? Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act was passed to replace the Jackson-Vanik Amendment from the Cold War aimed at imposing trade sanctions forcing the Soviet Union to allow Jews and other minorities to emigrate, with a more current punishment denying access to the U. Clearly, the executive order should concern those engaged in international sex trafficking.
When humans evolved on earth there was no microwave radiation , save for a very small amount. But what has been added as of today is a billion times more than ever existed on the planet, experts noted. So while microwave radiation caused by wireless technology is invisible, it is nonetheless a major environmental pollutant and a huge health hazard, the film says. Thus far, regulatory agencies have said that exposure to non-ionizing radiation such as radio frequencies is safe but only for short periods of time.
What Really Is 5G About? The documentary goes on to say that a growing body of research suggests wireless devices like cell phones can cause cancers in some people, and that additional exposure as bandwidth grows and wireless technology and signals expand, the health risks grow as well. As evidence, it cites some women who became accustomed to sticking their cellphones in their bras as a matter of convenience who would later develop breast cancer.
West said he then remembered his patient telling him where she kept her cell phone and asking if that could be a problem. Other experts interviewed for the documentary said that the best evidence researchers have thus far of radio frequency toxicity is the fact that cancer rates are increasing. Of course, the wireless industry is denying any link. But experts noted further that there are cancer registries in place that track new cancers in children and adults where increases are being documented.
As to the wireless industry, it positioned itself to be able to influence to its advantage any legislative, regulatory, or scientific efforts to expose the dangers of microwave radiation emitted by cellphones, Internet devices and other devices, the film notes.
Learn more about the documentary film Generation Zapped. Addicted to Your Phone? He had to know who this Cartwright guy was, and his employer, too. Therrien wanted to make them pay. At the same time, he worried that the call might not be a swindle.
What if some misinformed loan shark really was coming for them? Then he remembered Cartwright had left a number with his wife. Somewhere - at the top of a ladder of dirty debt collectors that Therrien would spend the next two years relentlessly climbing - a man named Joel Tucker had no idea what was coming.
The concept is centuries old: But systematic schemes to collect on fake debts started only about five years ago. It begins when someone scoops up troves of personal information that are available cheaply online - old loan applications, long-expired obligations, data from hacked accounts - and reformats it to look like a list of debts. Their targets are often poor and likely to already be getting confusing calls about other loans.
The problem is as simple as it is intractable. In a call center in India was busted for making 8 million calls in eight months to collect made-up bills. The Federal Trade Commission has since broken up at least 13 similar scams. Victims have essentially no recourse to do anything but take the abuse. Most victims, that is. When the scammers started to hound Therrien, he hounded them right back. Obsessed with payback, he spent hundreds of hours investigating the dirty side of debt.
By day he was still promoting ice cream brands and hiring models for liquor store tastings. But in his spare time, he was living out a revenge fantasy. He befriended loan sharks and blackmailed crooked collectors, getting them to divulge their suppliers, and then their suppliers above them.
In method, Therrien was like a prosecutor flipping gangster underlings to get to lieutenants and then the boss. He was simply unstoppable over the phone. When Therrien dialed the number Cartwright had left, a woman answered and said she worked for Lakefront Processing Solutions in Buffalo. Regardless, she said, Therrien could clear everything up by making a payment. Her records indicated that he owed a payday lender called Vista. Therrien says he paid back the debt promptly.
And I fulfilled my obligation. On his laptop, Therrien started digging. He found a securities filing saying Vista had merged with a company called That Marketing Solution Inc. After paying a few dollars to an online people-search service, he got its president on the line. Armed with proof the debt was invalid, Therrien turned back to Lakefront. More searches yielded a corporate parent, owned by two Buffalo men. Therrien called them, then their lawyer.
When the lawyer stalled, Therrien bombarded him with more calls, at home and on his cell - enough to put Lakefront off him for good. The parties eventually reached a confidential settlement, and Lakefront - whose name I found in a public record - declined to comment. But swatting down Lakefront turned out to be just the first round in a game of whack-a-mole. More collection agencies contacted him, his wife, his brother, even his grandparents.
The calls made it clear to Therrien that an overarching force was at play. His name had to be getting on these lists somehow. Each night, after his wife went to sleep, he cracked open his laptop to comb lawsuits, unearth filings, and uproot the owners of the agencies calling him. You might as well get blood out of it. Tell me what I need to know to put these guys in jail. Sometimes, Therrien would make a small payment on the fake debt, then check bank records to see where it went.
He found people with convictions for counterfeiting, stock fraud, drug dealing, and child molestation. He started a spreadsheet, Scums. On the phone, Therrien is a savant.
Therrien would threaten to report the collectors to regulators unless they helped him figure out what was going on. Others he tried to shame. Therrien knew his fixation seemed odd. He grew up in working-class Connecticut, where his father was a factory man and his mother had a series of part-time jobs. He told me he regrets not doing more to protect his brother. In college, Therrien worked at a J. Crew store, where a customer spotted his talent for sales and offered him a job.
Therrien makes a good living now, and he takes pride in being a more responsible person than his parents - paying his bills on time, going to church on Sunday, and taking care of those close to him. Phantom debt, he learned, is blended with real debt in ways that are almost impossible to untangle.
The agencies recoup what they can and sell the rest down-market, so that iffier and iffier debt is bought by shadier and shadier individuals. These rosters are actually more valuable, because the targets have proved willing to part with money over the phone. And then there are those who invent debts out of whole cloth.
Portfolios are combined and doctored until they contain thousands of entries. Some collectors told him they thought the files were partially legitimate; others knew their paper was completely falsified. Yet they continued to trade it, referring to the people they pursued as deadbeats and losers. The more Therrien learned, the more disgusted he grew with everyone involved.
His search for the ur-source rarely traveled in a straight line. For a time, Therrien focused on Buffalo,one of the poorest cities in the U.
Debt collector is a more common job there than bartender or construction worker, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. As Therrien wore down as many Buffalo collectors as he could, one name kept surfacing: Joel Tucker, a former payday-loan mogul from Kansas City, Mo.
Therrien needed an ally inside the Kansas City racket. When Therrien called, Rowland said he was sorry - and kept talking. His life was falling apart. They started to speak regularly, and Rowland told Therrien he blamed Tucker for everything.
Tucker had created the local industry with his two brothers. Scott, the oldest, was the brains. The middle son, Blaine, was popular and a talented musician. Joel, tall and handsome, was a natural salesman.
The case was dismissed. In the mids, Scott opened a payday-loan store and gave his brothers jobs. But in the 15 states where such stores are against the law, there are millions of desperate people willing to pay for fast cash and no one to give it to them. Scott pioneered what he thought was a clever legal loophole that would give him access to that market: He created websites that were owned on paper by an American Indian tribe, which could claim sovereign immunity from regulators. The loophole was ridiculously lucrative.
Around , Joel split to start a company that would allow anyone to get into online payday lending - supplying software to process applications and loans and offering access to a steady stream of customers. All the clients had to bring was money and a willingness to bypass state law. An investor presentation from that period shows that Tucker was personally clearing tens of millions of dollars in profit per year.
Under pressure from regulators, banks stopped doing business with the sketchiest payday lenders, making it hard for them to issue loans and collect payments. Blaine committed suicide by jumping off a parking garage in ; Scott was charged two years later with racketeering, and prosecutors called his tribal arrangement a sham.
He declined to comment. Twice divorced, he was moving from place to place, ducking his creditors. A booking photo from the time when he was briefly imprisoned for failing to show up for court in an unrelated lawsuit shows him with bristly gray hair and dark circles under deep-set blue eyes. She claimed not to know where he was. As he had in Buffalo, he developed a network of sources in Kansas City, figuring out who hated whom and playing them off each other.
He got a burner app that provided disposable numbers for his smartphone, with any area code he wanted. Therrien acknowledges that sometimes he went too far. By November he developed a simple theory. His emails were breathless and confusing, but the authorities were patient, taking his calls and talking to him at length. It was clear they knew about Tucker, but Therrien got frustrated by what he saw as inaction.
January saw a breakthrough: It had to have been them. Therrien was trying to hold back his anger, but his voice wavered. He wanted to impress Tucker, mentioning tidbits he knew about his business. Are you trying to micromanage my life? Incredibly, by the end of the half-hour call, Tucker was offering to help Therrien collect evidence about crimes committed by other people in the payday-loan business. Therrien soon obtained two crucial sets of documents to that end.
In March he flew to California to meet a debt broker, who handed over some contracts Tucker had signed. The metadata yielded a new name: The author of the email died of a drug overdose a few months later. A lawyer replied right away: They contacted Harsh, and in August he submitted an affidavit to the court. Tucker told the court he was broke. Meanwhile, Rowland was spiraling. He confided in Therrien that he was considering suicide, and one day that summer he called Therrien to say goodbye.
But that October, Rowland shot himself. According to the regulator, everything had happened pretty much as Therrien imagined: Tucker had invented more than 7.
The FTC has never credited Therrien, and Michael Tankersley, an agency lawyer, declined to discuss their interactions.
Therrien, as usual, was unsatisfied. He was still getting calls from collectors, for one thing. An FBI spokeswoman declines to say whether Tucker is being investigated, but three of his associates told me that agents had contacted them about his debt sales. After the ruling against Tucker, Therrien heard from him for the first time in months, and they started talking again. Without directly asking Therrien to drop his vendetta, Tucker seemed to be pleading for mercy.
Got a brother going to prison. Put it this way, Andrew. For the purposes of this exercise, vulnerable people might include groups such as homeless, transient, or rough-sleeping people; the elderly; children; those in social, Council, or emergency housing; people with intellectual or physical disabilities; and culturally and linguistically diverse community non-English speakers and refugees or migrants included.
Basically, I wanted to know whether councils were recognising that some people in their communities would be more vulnerable than the general population in the event of a Civil Defence emergency, and what they had done in their planning to take into account those groups specifically. I, in turn, always planned to acknowledge in my story — and I believe I have — that catering for all sections of a population in a probably chaotic crisis situation is never going to have a perfect, guaranteed solution.
Further, councils are only one part of a Civil Defence reponse and, as I discovered, many are increasingly turning the nuances of community safety over to communities themselves, recognising that communities are often better-placed to respond to their own unique vulnerabilities with specific local strengths and resources, as long as they are adequately prepared and equipped to do so.
Disclaimers aside, I really did just want to know whether councils had factored such vulnerable populations into their planning, and how, in order to paint a bit of a national picture.
You can read more about that here. Some councils have publicly-available planning that caters for some or all of those vulnerable groups. Some have discussed it privately, but not publicly. And some councils, of course, have not replied at all. Some tried to stick me with bills for hundreds or thousands of dollars they said it would take to answer my question. In an interesting slice of New Zealand life, a few councils responsible for particularly small or remote parts of the country responded that they personally knew everyone who lived there, and there were no homeless, migrant or refugee people locally, so there had been no planning needed for such groups.
Whether councils should be required to put plans for the vulnerable in writing, or whether they should instead be working up to shore up connections with marginalised sections of their communities ahead of a crisis — as Auckland and Wellington have, in recent years, become focused on doing — or a combination of both, is a judgement for someone with more expertise than me. I hope it is a conversation that continues among emergency response managers.
But it is important, when discussing big issues, to come to the table with the facts. As usual, where the most eagerly responding councils often had initiatives they particularly wanted to show off, I have no doubt that some of the non-responders are sitting on information that the public should know about, around gaps in our Civil Defence readiness. But the information I was provided allowed me to report the mixed national picture with more confidence, and allowed me to approach the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management with greater boldness.
While the law does mandate councils consider and engage communities in their planning, emergency responders around New Zealand told me that perfectly naturally and understandably policy took time to flow into practice, and that they had only started investing deeply in community-driven planning over the past few years in several cases, the past 18 months to two years.
Some councils have not yet had the funding or staffing to invest in it at all. Although this job is a privilege, at their worst, such investigations can feel like an extremely stressful hobby. In this case, a grant from the Scoop Foundation for Public Interest Journalism helped fund some of the research and interviewing hours on my stories, allowing me to push out the scope of an investigation that initially was only going to focus on Wellington.
Stories resulting from the grant are being published on scoop. All of this begs the question: Now that we know the U. Over the last few years, we have seen this similar pattern occur over and over again. Even if the U. When viewed in its recent historical context and with the most recent reports in mind, the answer to that question should be clear. In September , the U. Over 60 Syrian soldiers died as a result of this illegal act of war, but no one was held accountable. It has also been speculated that U.
We also know the U. But wait, it gets even better. There is a case to be made against the U. Furthermore, the Times expressed no doubts about the information it was disclosing.
No detractors and harsh critics were quoted. This was a straight-from-the-Pentagon to the Times pipeline. The Times story had all the earmarks of a government gift, not a leak. This, too, never happens. Someone high up in the Pentagon, or someone outside the Pentagon, with major clout, gave the green light to the Times.
He assured the Times the story was real. As discussion and vetting of the UFO story occurred at the Times, before they went to print, the overriding and decisive factor was: If they give the public a few bread crumbs, or even a steak, there is a course meal behind that, and the meal is never served.
Long-time UFO researcher, Grant Cameron, has pointed out that the American strategy for hiding secrets for decades has been: And just now, the Times has published two more UFO articles.
The first, by senior reporter Dan Barry, is headlined: He died before the Pentagon finally admitted UFOs are real. Is This All There Is? Secret Space Program Disclosure: Both of these pieces lend support to the original Times blockbuster about the secret Pentagon UFO program.
All this could very well mean that what is being hidden, now, is much larger than what has been hidden in the past. For example, new technological discoveries and advances have been made in the areas of propulsion systems and energy production, beside which the old discoveries pale by comparison. In that case, the latest partial disclosures needed to be stronger, in terms of their impact. Impact as diversion from the deeper truth.
And the NY Times would carry the ball. The number one mainstream news operation on the planet accepts what Elizondo is saying at face value? On the verboten subject of UFOs? When everyone knows career intelligence officers are trained to lie at the drop of a hat? Which, again, tells you the Pentagon wanted this story to be published. Unless the blowback from rival news outlets is too severe. Whatever they eventually publish, no matter how shocking, it will be a very, very small fragment of what the government and those who control the government is hiding.
If, five years ago, you polled the most competent and knowledgeable independent UFO researchers, and asked them whether they thought the New York Times would ever publish a major positive UFO story, who among them would have predicted what we are seeing now? Finally, this could now happen: We did what you told us to do.
But now, other news operations are going to have to carry the freight. We broke the barrier. But the Times will forever be remembered as the first - they took their marching orders and delivered. They fronted for, and sold, a limited hangout, against all odds. In , we are seeing consequences of such a culture: A generation excessively prone to anxiety, depression, and suicide.
People are so keen on numbing themselves from the world that they are dying by the tens of thousands in the US alone of opioid abuse — drugs created by pharmaceutical companies to numb pain. The opioid crisis is symbolic in itself and, unfortunately, perfectly illustrates the state of mind of our generation. It is symptomatic of a palpable mal-de-vivre , a malaise of the soul that needs to be healed.
Several factors are causing this climate and our constant exposure to media and its distorted messages is a big part of the equation. The video platform has been flooded with thousands of videos aimed at toddlers filled with content that is either shocking, terrifying, sexual or all-out traumatizing. Even worse, some videos are targeted by child predators. Fortunately, some good has come from our collective vigilance.
While this might be a step in the right direction, the same underbelly is still bubbling not so far below the surface, constantly churning out videos from stars and idols promoting self-destruction. Understanding this mindset — as foul and disturbing as it can be — allows one to navigate the world with eyes truly open.
What Is The Golden Ratio? There is a process in motion and every year it is more visible. Indeed, there is a conscious and deliberate effort to distance the masses from what is true and authentic in order to move them into an artificially created environment, custom-made to stifle the human spirit.
The further away we are from truth, health, balance, and harmony, the easier we are to control. For this reason, it is essential, more than ever, to stay grounded and connected to what life is truly about. We must reconnect with Life with a capital L. What is Life with a capital L might you ask? Well, like you, I am still finding out. However, I do know that, since the dawn of time, it has been represented by a simple yet powerful symbol: Picture a great big tree, with its massive roots firmly gripping the soil that is full of nutrients and its tall branches reaching for the rays of the sun.
Across all ages and across all cultures, the symbol of the tree represents Life … with a capital L. The Tree of Life can be found in the canons of countless religions and mythologies. It is an age-old archetype that symbolizes the connection between Earth and the heavens. In nearly every case, the tree is associated with knowledge of life and a described as a key to immortality. Separated from the tree, Adam and Eve found themselves subject to physical and spiritual death.
At the very end of the Bible, in Revelation, the same tree is mentioned again: An depiction of the Norse Yggdrasil — the tree of life. Although each culture has its own elaborate story surrounding their version of the Tree of Life, the core message is the same: It is through the essence of this tree, which is rooted in the true source of life, that one can truly flourish.
Today, most of us are completely disconnected from that tree. And those in power are doing their best to push us as far away from it as possible.
Through a debasing and abhorrent agenda, they seek to disconnect us from the core of that tree and its wise, life-giving essence. They want us to be like dried up leaves, detached from the tree, and floating aimlessly at the mercy of the winds they choose to blow at us. Instead, like a tree, we must be firmly rooted in grounds made of strong values, solid knowledge, and patient wisdom.
Like a tree, we must reach for the heavens and allow our fruits to be ripened by the sun. While the Tree of Life has a profound spiritual meaning, simple steps can be done to reconnect with it. Disconnect from the hypnotic light of screens and the nauseating sounds of media. Breathe fresh air, gaze at the stars, and admire the miraculous force that animates all living things.
Step back from the dizzying torment of society and resynch with the balancing rhythm of nature. Take the time to truly connect with your loved ones, with your neighbors and, of course, with yourself. Because, although being aware of the evils of this world is all-important, we must not allow ourselves to be consumed by it. We must use this knowledge to identify what is toxic, not to obsess over it, but to clearly focus on what is healthy.
Although we all want to change the world for the better, the true challenge of our lives is to change ourselves for the better. And this is what being a Vigilant Citizen is all about.
Thank you for reading my articles, for sharing them throughout the web, and for contributing your own thoughts through comments and messages. Today, more than ever, we need independent thinkers that rely on a solid moral compass — not a predetermined agenda — to understand the world, to speak up, and to fight for what is right.
Facebook is facing renewed criticism after a recent spat of ex-employees admitted social media was causing severe psychological damage to society, leading to a massive rift in real-life relationships. The Shafi'i hold that injunctions for riba apply to gold and silver currency but not fils non-precious metal currency. This is not because riba can only involve loans using gold and silver currency, but because instead of interest riba is actually the "now common practice of issuing unbacked paper currency".
To end this sin, Muslim states must return to the gold standard. Critic of the all-interest-is- riba formulation, M. Farooq, makes a number of criticisms of logic employed using ahadith to establish the connection.
A similar argument in favor of the objectives rather than means is made by Mahmud El-Gamal. In favor of making analysis of istislah public interest  rather than qiyas , i. In this regard, maximizing net benefit is the objective of the law for which rulings were established. Other legal proofs are means to attaining that legal end [of maximizing net benefits], and objectives should always have priority over means.
El-Gamal quotes 14th century Maliki scholar Al-Shatibi stating that the legal ends of Islamic law "are the benefits intended by the law. Thus, one who keeps legal form while squandering its substance does not follow the law.
But when it come to banking, contemporary orthodox scholars do not consider "customary practices" to constitute a "legal consideration". Mohammad Omar Farooq argues the prevailing doctrine of interest-equals- riba may eventually follow other such "long-standing orthodox" but no longer accepted practices such as hadd capital punishment for apostasy from Islam , or that " triple talaq " i.
Most Muslims and most "non-Muslim observers of the Islamic world" believe that interest on loans also on bonds, bank deposits etc. In response — after the parliament was reopened — an Islamist MP stated that no member of parliament had the right to question this "settled issue" since the Pakistan state Council of Islamic Ideology had decreed that interest in all its forms was haram in an Islamic society.
Among some such as Imran Nazar Hosein interest on loans constitutes not just a sin or crime but the. Their aim is to gain total control and to use that power to destroy faith in Allah. However, not all Muslims agree with the "orthodox" formulation that any and all interest — including contemporary "bank interest" as opposed to interest charged in predatory, unfair or abusive lending — constitutes riba.
While the minority status of non-orthodox scholars is uncontested, whether there is a consensus ijma in favor of orthodoxy, is. One non-orthodox economist M. Khan argues that a true consensus requires the agreement of not only most Islamic scholars but the Muslim community as a whole. In answer to the question, "why has God prohibited interest?
At the same time that orthodox analysts offer rationale for why interest is forbidden, "more than one analyst" — including medieval Quranic exegete Fakhr al-Din al-Razi  and leading orthodox scholar Taqi Usmani — have stressed that ultimately, Muslims must obey the prohibition even if they do not understand the reason for it. In any case, Usmani writes, injustice zulm "is a relative and rather ambiguous term the exact definition of which is very difficult to ascertain".
Some of their contentions are. The alleged injustice of fixed return and its alleged lack of risk, has been attacked by Ismail Ozsoy, M.
Ismail Ozsoy defines interest as riba and as "an unearned or unequally distributed income. Mohammad Nejatullah Siddiqi argues that charging interest on loans — whether intended for consumption or production — is forbidden exploitation. If a loan is to buy consumer goods, those who have wealth should assist those without and not charge any increment above principal. If a business borrows to invest in plant or equipment, a guaranteed return on capital is unjust because there is no sharing of profits between entrepreneur and financier,  the borrower is "obliged to pay to the bank an extra amount" — i.
Abul A'la Maududi also believed return on a investment other than profit sharing is unjust. Defending the justice of a "fixed" return,  M. Khan asks why fixed rent and fixed wages are not equally unjust  despite not being forbidden by orthodox scholars.
While some Islamist thinkers have promoted the idea that 'labor owned firms would express the spirit of Islam better' than conventional ones, [Note 39] there is no movement to restrict businesses to profit-sharing payment for employees or even much debate on the issue.
Predatory lending does exist — from payday lenders, and those lending at high and variable rates. These "may be covered by riba and thus Islamically prohibited,"  but this is hardly the same as declaring all interest riba. Another argument against the idea that charging interest on loans exploits entrepreneurs, is that availability of capital for a modern business endeavour is one factor among many that lead to success or failure.
Having provided its share in the process, why should financiers suffer part of the losses if there are any that are beyond their control; or be rewarded with profits if there are any that they had so little to do with? Khan replies that in the overwhelming majority of cases both banks and lenders benefit from loans and asks if it is sensible to let the small fraction of bankruptcies dictate how finance is structured.
Feisal Khan points out that contrary to the orthodox view that collateralized loans are risk free, the subprime mortgage crisis has shown that "even AAA-rated collateral is often insufficient to ward off lender losses".
Khan cites rates of profits of business enterprises from developed countries  over several decades, which were "consistently" higher by " several multiples " then the rates of interest, [Note 40] a reflection of capital markets compensating the greater risk of equities with greater returns on average , and safer fixed income investment with lower returns.
Large, sophisticated enterprises can hardly be considered victims of exploitation when they borrow funds that originate in accounts of small savers. Concerning the motive of fighting injustice and exploitation, M. Khan complains that the orthodox have never bothered to define exactly what they mean by exploitation or done the research to substantiate their claim that all interest exploits. Farooq notes that orthodox supporters frequently invoke exploitation and injustice in their polemical arguments but ignore it in studies or in depth works.
Izzud-Din Pal and Yoginder Sikand complain that the pursuit of justice has not been made the "underlying reason" in defining riba by jurists. Among those arguing that interest has a corrupting influence on society are Muhammad N. Interest "corrupts" society and "demeans and diminishes human personality" according to M. Maududi holds that interest "develops miserliness, selfishness, callousness, inhumanity". Farooq replies by asking why Siddiqi does not even attempt to provide evidence for how charging interest leads to social and personal corruption, noting there is no connection between levels of corruption as determined by monitors such as Transparency International and the use of interest-bearing loans.
Once people understand this they will invest in Islamic finance. Among those who believe that interest bearing loans favor the rich and exploit the poor are M. Taji al-Din and Monzer Kahf argues that charging interest on loans restricts the circulation of wealth to those who already have it, since lenders do not provide loans to those who are unable to repay them.
This he believes is forbidden by the Quran and results in an increase the divide between the rich and poor. Khan replies that these difficulties would not be solved by Islamic banking, firstly because "no business firm will extend credit to a customer until it is satisfied with its credibility",  and secondly because there is no evidence that Islamic banking institutions have been focusing on the potential profitability of the proposals of entrepreneurs seeking capital rather than collateral.
Among the claims that interest plays a negative role in the economy include that it squeezes out productive investment, encourages speculation, creates credit bubbles, fuels inflation, instability, unemployment, depressions and imperialism.
Umer Chapra writes that by providing "easy access to credit for unproductive purposes", interest "squeezes the availability of resources for need fulfilment",   squelching job creation. Mohammad Abdul Mannan writes that eliminating interest would follow the cooperative norm of the Quran, and stimulate job creation and economic vitality. Khan replies that the harm created by interest cannot be that severe as interest-based finance is "deeply entrenched" in the developed countries of the OECD, where per capita income is quite high and the percentage of poor people relatively low.
Farooq notes that the countries that have gone in an "'interest-free' direction" are "hardly examples of greater economic stability. On the issue of over-indebtedness and instability, Chapra also argues that the interest-based system and its reliance on collateral leads to excessive levels of debt, which leads to economic instability. This discipline would mean greater economic stability.
This leads to debt changing hands, multiple layers of it being created, and the generation of credit bubbles whose inevitable bursting destabilizes the economy. Usmani insists interest-based financing may "fuel inflation" since it "does not necessarily" finance the creation of real assets" its financing not tied to real assets , and may increase the supply of money without increasing products to match it.
Another way in which interest is alleged to "lend itself to speculation" is the alleged practice of borrowing at low rates to lend at higher ones. This allegedly disrupts "trade cycles" and interferes with economic planning and would be remedied by banning interest charges. Islamist leader Abul A'la Maududi — who was not an economist but has been credited with laying "down the foundations for development "of Islamic economics  — preaches that interest along with the lack of zakat tax on savings prevents economic progress and prosperity by rewarding savings and capital formation the common idea that these things help economic development being a "deception".
Entrepreneurial profit and wages should be the only source of income in society. Siddiqi and Ganameh cite a hadith of "income devolved on liability" in this context. Farooq notes that the monetarist economists such as Friedman blame interventionist monetary policy in general rather than interest charges for the instability, and when asked specifically about any economic danger from interest charges Friedman himself stated that the work Chapra quoted did "not provide any support whatsoever for the zero interest doctrine" and that he Friedman did "not believe there is any merit to the argument that an interest-free economy might contribute toward greater economic stability.
I believe indeed it would have the opposite effect. Usmani and other orthodox believe that the burden of foreign debt incurred by developing countries including many Muslim countries from loans by developed countries and institutions like the IMF , is an illustration of the curse of interest.
Khan agrees that the debt burden has created considerable hardship, but should be blamed on "mismanagement, fraud and corruption" in the misuse of borrowed funds, rather than interest charges. If interest was to blame, Islamic financing would not be a solution Khan argues , since it also involves costs termed "profits" or "fees" rather than interest to those in the developing world seeking capital. Muhammad Siddiqi reassured policy makers that interest-free accounts paying no return to savers would not mean a significant reduction in savings because savings is mainly a function of the income of the savers rather than their expectation of any return.
Obviously, this is totally a wrong assumption. According to Shari'ah, interest free loans are meant for cooperative and charitable activities, and not normally for commercial transactions Khan has reported "a consensus" among Muslim economists that Islamic finance for commercial transactions "would not be free", but would have some kind of "cost" other than interest.
As the Islamic revival blossomed in the last half of the 20th century, this new financial system began to be developed. The similarity between credit sales and conventional non-Islamic " ribawi " loans has been noted some calling murabaha a "semantic work-around" for interest charging loans ,  necessary because businesses "cannot survive where cash and credit prices are equal", and urges that bank interest not be judged haram.
Orthodox writers such as Monzer Kahf have defended the distinction stating attaching commodities to money in finance prevents money from being used for speculative purposes. Usmani insists that the phrase " God has permitted trade Other orthodox scholars  A. El-Gamal , instead of giving a rationale, declare that the difference is knowable only to God, something humans must obey without understanding.
Why one is permitted while the other is forbidden can only be fully known by Allah and whomsoever he gave such knowledge. As a practical matter, we should know what is permitted and use it to our advantage, and what is forbidden and avoid it. Credit sales do not follow the Islamic ideal called for by pioneers of Islamic banking of doing away with the "injustice" and exploitation of un-shared profits and losses in finance.
The shortcomings of Islamic banking has been used by at least one non-orthodox critic as an arguments against equating interest with riba. Farooq, the "increasing need" of the Islamic banking industry "to resort to Hiyal legal stratagem to claim Shari'ah-compliance", is evidence that forbidding interest "is not tenable from Islamic viewpoint".
Other Islamic finance products replacing conventional bonds Sukuk , insurance Takaful , promise to avoid not only riba but Islamically forbidden concepts such as Maysir gambling or speculation and Gharar "uncertainty" or "ambiguity". Replacements have been suggested for the use of a bank interest rate for monetary policy. Siddiqi suggests two variables that can alternatively be used:.
These ratios could be used to manipulate rates of profit of Islamic finance. They could be determined through market forces or set by governments for the public interest, and as of the early s this has been legislated in Sudan and Pakistan, according to Siddiqi.
In modern economic theory many of the important models use interest as a key element, and in accounting interest rates are used to evaluate projects and investments. The non-orthodox position emphasizes the difference between bank interest and the riba of the Quran sometimes arguing that contemporary "bank Interest" is a new financial technology not covered by classical fiqh ,  and the importance of moral and practical aspects in determining what is riba.
In addition to the defence of the use of bank interest as Islamically permissible and not the cause of harm to economic prosperity, the poor, or society in general, the non-orthodox primarily M. Khan argue that several issues — the time value of money , dealing with inflation, early or delinquent loan payment — make a ban on all interest problematic, and that the "Islamic concept of money" used to defend the ban is itself problematic.
A number of the high level jurists affiliated in some way with Muslim-majority governments have opposed a ban on all interest. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat obtained a fatwa from the Sheikh of al-Azhar ruled that interest-bearing treasury bonds were consistent with Islamic law.
Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy , issued several fatawa permitting bank interest in So let us stop this controversy about bank interest. Other Modernists interpreters of riba include those on the India-Pakistan subcontinent including: Makkan lending Riba an-jahiliya involved high interest rates charged by rich money lenders to poor customers who borrowed for purposes of consumption,  and led to the accumulation of large debts and often financial slavery.
They also advance the economic argument that "the goal of eradicating interest is both misguided and unfeasible," because interest is "indispensable to any complex economy".
Islamic Modernist scholar such as Fazlur Rahman Malik ,  Muhammad Asad ,  Sa'id al-Najjar,  Sayyid Tantawi,  differ from the orthodox interpreters in arguing that interest is not riba unless it involves exploitation of the needy. They differentiate between various forms of interest charges advocating the lawfulness of some and rejecting others. Abd-al-Munim Al-Nimr, also argues that riba must involve harm to the debtor. Lawyer and Islamic scholar Kemal A.
Their tactics include intimidation and force. Economic arguments that bank interest is needed for efficient allocation of resources and economic development, also mean that it serves the public interest. Because public interest Maslaha , is one of the bases of divine law  ranking below other sources: Turkish-American economist and Islamic Studies scholar Timur Kuran questions whether an economy without interest has ever existed: Taqi Usmani argues that commercial, industrial and agricultural as opposed to consumption loans could not have been unknown to Arabs in the era of Muhammad since ahadith mention large loans and large scale caravans used by Arab traders.
One concept instrumental in explaining and defending the justice of charging interest on loans  is the time value of money  — the idea that there is greater benefit in possessing money in the present rather than the future. As such, some Islamic finance supporters have attacked the idea of time value. Irfan argues that the value of money diminishes very little over time because some consumption — such as eating — can only be done over time.
Furthermore, discounting for time may lead to negative outcomes such as unsustainable agricultural production with planting and grazing that causes desertification and erosion, since these bad outcomes occur in the discounted future. Most orthodox Islamic scholars and economists have taken a middle path — insisting that a rate of discount of money overtime is an invalid concept if the rate is interest on a loan , but valid if the rate is return on capital from Murabaha or other Islamic contracts.
Answers to the argument of economists such as Farooq that lenders of money are due some kind of rent-like compensation;  and to the question of why charging extra to finance a purchase in, for example, murabaha Islamic finance is allowed, but in lending cash it is riba , [Note 52]  can be found supporters believe in the "Islamic concept of money".
Orthodox scholars, such as M. Usmani, have written that money can only be a "medium of exchange" and must not be treated as an "asset or commodity". This being the case, no return for the use of money can be justified,  and explains at least in part why it is riba. Usmani quotes condemnations of speculation by various Western sources  [Note 53] and the writings of the celebrated medieval Islamic scholar Al-Ghazzali that money was made to facilitate trade and should never be hoarded or used to charge interest.
The opposite of credit sales — i. Reduction of debt for early payment is considered haram by the four Sunni schools of jurisprudence Hanafi , Maliki , Shafi'i , Hanbali , but whether there is a consensus of Islamic jurists is unclear.
According to Ridha Saadullah, such reductions have. It does not constitute forbidden riba if it is not agreed upon in advance and as long as the creditor-debtor relationship remains bilateral. Whether or not compensation to lenders for the erosion of the value of the funds from inflation is allowed and how to provide that compensation in a way that is not considered riba , has also been called a problem "vexing" Islamic scholars,  since finance for businesses will not be forthcoming if a lender loses money by lending.
Volume 1 of Investment Laws in Muslim Countries Handbook , states "an interest rate that did not exceed the rate of inflation was not riba according to classical Islamic jurists. However, many scholars believe indexing is a type of riba and that it encourages inflation. The scholars are agreed that if it is stipulated that a loan be repaid with something extra, that is riba usury which is forbidden by Allaah and His Messenger. Kabir Hassan state that: Prohibition against late fees has led to the control and management of delinquent accounts becoming "one of the vexing problems" in Islamic finance, according to M.
Islamic banks face a serious problem with late payments, not to speak of outright defaults, since some people take advantage of every dilatory legal and regal and religious device In most Islamic countries, various forms of penalties and late fees have been established, only to be outlawed or considered unenforceable.
Late fees in particular have been assimilated to riba. Riba al-fadl does not involve paying back over time but instead the trading of different quantities of the same commodity gold, silver, wheat, barley, date, or salt , typically because the quality of the smaller quantity is superior. Because riba al-fadl involves barter, and barter is much less common than it was in early Meccan society, riba al-fadl is of much less interest nowadays than riba an-nasiya.
Examples of the ahadith cited in forbidding riba al-fadl — many from Sahih Bukhari — are:. Raqiub Zaman notes that when riba is described in hadith literature, it is "in the context of sales" where riba al-fadl might apply , with "no mention of loan qard or debt dayan ",  where riba an-nasiya might apply. However, there are various contradictions and discrepancies in ahadith on riba al-fadl. Khan quote a well-known hadith by Usama bin Zayd in Sahih al-Bukhari making a rather categorical statement that.
Farooq cites another from Sahih Muslim. Khan also believes the hadith indicate that riba in a spot exchange is "ruled out". El-Gamal, Ibn Rushd later reversed his position. There are also contradictory ahadith on trading silver for gold: The bartering of gold for silver is Riba except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount Islamic jurists have traditionally interpreted the admonition of riba by the ahadith to mean that if one amount of commodity is traded for the same kind of commodity then the two items exchanged must be of the same quantity , ignoring the quality of the commodity or the labor added to it.
All the schools of Islamic jurisprudence fiqh accept this prohibition. The Concise Dictionary of Islamic Terms also states that riba al-fadl is one of two kinds of riba which are "strictly forbidden by the laws of Islam". While all the schools of fiqh agree with the prohibition, they do not agree over its rationale or whether it is restricted to the six commodities mentioned in ahadith -- gold, silver, wheat, barley, date, salt -- as the ahadith do not say "whether or not other commodities will assume the same status".
This disagreement according to Taqi Usmani is the part of the lament of Rashidun Caliph Umar that Muhammad did not explain the prohibition more clearly. Critics of this interpretation include activist Khalid Zaheer and economists M. Khan and Muhammad Omar Farooq. Zaheer believes that "the literature on Islamic Finance and Economics is presenting very strange applications of the concept of riba al-fadl , which are Khan and Farooq find the commandment suspicious on the grounds that it makes no sense.
Khan asks why anyone would ever trade equal quantities of the same kind of commodity "like for like" — for example kilograms of wheat for kg of wheat — in a riba-free transaction called for by quoted ahadith.
Or how "divine law" could prescribe that a jeweler — "who has spent his time and effort to convert gold into jewelry" and is taking gold as payment — not be compensated? Mahmoud El-Gama notes that orthodox interpretation or at least orthodox Hanafi of riba the basis of what he attacks as "shari'a arbitrage" distinguishes between fungible mithli and non-fungible qimi items. Thus allegedly fungible gold may not be traded one ounce for two, but trading one nonfunglible item such as diamonds for two is permitted, whatever the items' market value.
El-Gama describes this as avoiding "riba in form" while being "usurious in substance". According to Abdullah Saeed, "the intended meaning" of the ahadith concerning riba al-fadl "was not very clear even to many jurists", who nonetheless believed the prohibition "was to be observed and complied with Ibn Rushd stated that "what is targeted by the prohibition of riba is the excessive inequity it entails". Iqbal Suhail believes trading lesser quality foodstuffs for better quality and less quantity was forbidden because the frugality and austerity of Muhammad was offended by something like the spending resources on higher quality foodstuffs "for the sake of gratification of the palate.
Farooq suggest it may have arisen to warn Muslims that barter is usually less profitable than buying and selling separately, [Note 55] and notes several hadith where Muhammad tells a Muslim not to trade dates of different quality but never mentions riba. Khan argues that the prohibition against riba al-fadl comes not from any clear understanding of the ahadith but from an attempt to find a plausible explanation "to rationalize the ambiguity in the text".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Riba disambiguation. Shahada Salat Raka'ah Qibla Turbah. Sunnah salat Tahajjud Tarawih. Masturbation Hygiene Sexual violation Zina Awrah. Riba Murabaha Takaful Sukuk. Jihad Hudna Istijarah asylum Prisoners of war.
Khan has created a list of "possible meanings of the term riba" of which some are: Mis'ar thinks that Jabir went in the forenoon. In general, however, except for the aforementioned three types of reports of the sayings of the Prophet, other reports are not unanimous and are not equally relied on by jurists. Sahih Bukhari mentions parts of it. Musnad Imam Ahmed recorded the longest and complete speech. We used to be given mixed dates from the booty and used to sell barter two Sas of those dates for one Sa of good dates.
The Prophet said to us , "No bartering of two Sas [about six liters] for one Sa nor two Dirhams for one Dirham is permissible", as that is a kind of usury ". Dar al-Kutub al-'ilmiyyah, , vol. Khomeini was one of many mujtahid clerics who published copies of the work with slight variations on the original,  though which parts are Borujerdi's original fatwas and which are Khomeini's input is not explained.
It is particularly interesting that most of those references to customary practice pertained to rules of credit sales murabaha and leases ijara , which are the most dominant tools of contemporary Islamic finance. A pandemonium broke out in the house over his remarks as a number of MMA members However, they were not allowed to speak on a point of order that led to their walkout Later, the opposition members were persuaded by a team of ministers Sahibzada Fazal Karim said the Council of Islamic ideology had decreed that interest in all its forms was haram in an Islamic society.
Hence, he said, no member had the right to question this settled issue. The unfavorable view characterized traditional banking as usury or riba -based Abdullah Saeed points out that in Kuwait where the Civil Code states "loans shall be without interest", the Commercial Code allows it.
Government policy on charging of interest in Muslim majority states is complicated even in states that have supported Islamic i. In Kuwait, Article of the Civil Code states "loans shall be without interest. Any condition to the contrary shall be void without prejudice to the loan agreement itself".
But that country's Commercial Code states "The creditor has the right to interest in a commercial loan unless the contrary is agreed. Farooq, this position taken by Taqi Usmani, is that of the Hanafi and the Shafi'i schools of jurisprudence but not of the Maliki and the Hanbali schools -- although Usmani does not mention this.
The data show that the rates of profits over these periods in these countries have been consistently higher by several multiples of the rates of interest. It means that business enterprises, in general, experience profit from their operations. A Survey of Contemporary Literature , by M. Siddiqi,  "includes entries under 51 subcategories over pages", but "not a single citation for exploitation or injustice", or mention in the index  The 75 page introductory text includes a two page section on "Goals of the System" which includes mentions of "economic well-being", "sufficiency and peace", "provision of ease and convenience", "optimisation", "spiritual needs", " but not "justice" or ending "exploitation".
Farooq points out that at least in one large, developed country — the USA — ownership of bank deposits the source of the capital used for bank loans comes disproportionately from high income earners, but not not as much as the ownership of large companies which are often borrowers of bank loans. Scheinkman, "ancient usury laws, which forbade all interest on loans", constituted a "form of a priori social insurance. In societies with pervasive poverty, the cooperative charitable lending rule provides transfers from fortunate individuals born with wealth to those less fortunate.
It has been conveniently ignored that accepting the time value of money logically leads to the acceptance of interest. Retrieved 13 February Muslims have always agreed that riba is prohibited. What constitutes riba , has, however, been a subject evoking deliberation and debate over the centuries that followed divine revelation.
The Failure of Political Islam. Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 4 April Retrieved 5 April Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance. Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 14 September Retrieved 23 January Definition of riba and ruling on work that helps with riba". Islam Question and Answer. Retrieved 26 October Kabir 6 March Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance: Economic System of Islam.
Translated by Husain, R. Retrieved 1 June Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. The New Encyclopedia of Islam revised ed. Historical Dictionary of Islam. Ali, Engku Rabiah Adawiah Engku. Islamic Law and Finance: Religion, Risk and Return [The Hague: Kluwer Law International, ], p. Islamic Banking and Interest: A Study of the Prohibition of Riba and Its. Retrieved 26 January Interest in Islamic Economics. In Ariff, Mohamed; Iqbal, Munawar. The Foundations of Islamic Banking: Theory, Practice and Education.
Retrieved 27 March Retrieved 14 November Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 1 April Reading the Qur'an in the Twenty-First Century: Social Science Research Network. Those who equate riba with interest seek support from al-Jassas, who claimed that pre-Islamic Arabia practiced a form of riba where money was lent at a predetermined sum over the principal amount.
However, there is no historical evidence to suggest that riba al-jahiliya also consisted of transactions that were similar to modern loans on interest. Istanbul, Turkey, , p. Retrieved 10 September A blessing or nuisance to humanity? World muslimpedia , Retrieved July 24, Retrieved 30 March Muslim Mirror , Retrieved July 25, Retrieved 9 August Jewish life in southern Iran , Laurence D. Loeb, , page 86, Gordon and Breach.
Retrieved 13 May Retrieved 4 June Big interest, no interest". The Economist Newspaper Limited. Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 14 April